India Ayurveda

• About Panchkarma
• Treatment of Panch.
• Principles of Panch.
• Panch. Therepy


• About Meditation
• Effects of Meditation
• Concepts of Meditation


• Diagnosis Process
• Ways of Diagnosis
• Examination Process


• Composition of Diet
• Diet Planning
• Ayurvedic Taste Pro.


• Introduction
• Body Types
• Bath
• Vata
• Pitta
• Kapha


History of Ayurveda

History is sometimes understood by the trail the present leaves in its wake. Documented references to the exact timing of the genesis of Ayurveda are not available. The era of Ayurveda has been established on the basis of linking the facts with other disciplines as well as circumstantial proof.
Ayurveda is supposed to have been first compiled as a text by Agnivesha, in his book Agnivesh Tantra, which was written during Vedic times. The book was later reworked by Charaka, and renamed as Charaka Samhitā (encyclopedia of the physician Charaka). Other early texts of Ayurveda include the Charaka Samhitā and the Sushruta Samhitā.  Earlier education happened through chanting of verses by teachers and remembering by students. This is known as Gurukul. Here also the system was to orally transfer via the Gurukul system until a script came into existence.
Understandably the very first scripts would have been written on fragile materials such as Taalpatra and Bhojapatra, which could not be readily preserved. The script was afterward engraved on stone and copper sheets. Verses dealing with Ayurveda are included in the Atharvaveda, which means that some form of Ayurveda is as old as the Vedas. Ayurvedic practices have also evolved over time, and some practices may be considered innovations upon earlier Vedic practices, such as the advances made during the Buddhist period in India.
Hindu religion attributes the genesis of Ayurveda to several theories in which the knowledge is said to have been passed on from being to being, at first, through its realisation by the divine sages, and gradually into the human sphere by a multifaceted system of mnemonics. Particulars of Ayurvedic traditions differ between writers, as is expected when oral traditions are transcribed from numerous sources. The earliest authors of Ayurvedic manuscripts recorded different forms of the custom.

Historical Evidence

The record of native Indian medical science is almost certainly as old as the Indus Valley Civilisation dating back to 3000 BC. The carefully planned cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro point not only to India’s wealthy cultural legacy but also to its superior systems of sanitation and health care. The remnants of deer antler and bitumen found in Harappa give evidence to the existence of a medical science. It was between 1200 and 700 BC, that the four sacred Vedas were composed. References to diseases, herbs and herbal cures can be seen in all the four Vedas particularly in the Rig Veda.
The Atharva Veda has numerous hymns lauding herbs. A lot of plants were worshipped as deities and called upon by chants. There were also loads of Mantras (invocations) to battle jaundice, consumption and hereditary diseases among others. The Atharvan hymns recited for the cure of diseases were acknowledged as Bhaishajyams and those for achieving durability and success were called Ayushyams. These hymns, especially the Ayushyams are considered to be the groundwork for progress in later medicine.

Development

Metals were being used extensively when ayurvedic practice was booming during the time of Buddha (around 520 BC), and in this period the Ayurvedic practitioners were frequently using Mercuric-sulphur mixture based medicines. During this period mercury, sulphur and other metals were used in combination in the company of herbs to arrange diverse medications. A significant Ayurvedic practitioner of this period was Nagarjuna, a Buddhist herbologist, famed for inventing various new drugs for the treatment of ailments.
Nagarjuna was with Surananda, Nagbodhi, Yashodhana, Nityanatha, Govinda, Anantdev, Vagbhatta etc. The information of Ayurveda progressed a lot all through this period, including progress of newer and more successful medicines, and is therefore named the Golden Period of Ayurveda.
Following victory at Kalinga War, Emperor Ashoka (304 BC-232 BC) prejudiced by Buddhist wisdom, debarred bloodshed in his monarchy in 250 BC. Hence several Ayurveda practitioners, who were involved in surgery alongside medicine, left the surgical intrusion and adopted entirely fresh curative treatments. During this time, Ayurveda for a second time developed and prospered with the creation of new drugs, new methodology and new innovations. The practice of the accompanying surgery slowly died out during this period.
Throughout the administration of a famous monarch Chandragupta Maurya (375-415 AD), Ayurveda was part of conventional Indian therapeutic techniques, and continued to be so till the colonisation by the British.
Chakrapani Dutta (DuttaSharma) was a Vaid Brahman of Bengal who composed books on Ayurveda such as "Chakradutta" and others. Chakrapani Dutta was the Rajavaidya of Great King Laxman Sen {some says rajVaid of King Nayapala (1038 - 1055)}. It is supposed by some practitioners that Chakradutta is the fundamental nature of Ayurveda.
The Indians, have for all time conserved Ayurveda as a conventional ‘science of life’, regardless of mounting adoption of European medical techniques during the time of British rule. For more than a few decades the standing and skills of the a variety of Ayurvedic schools declined noticeably as Western medicine and Western-style hospitals were built. However, in the 1970s, a gradual acknowledgment of the value of Ayurveda returned, and at present Ayurvedic hospitals and practitioners are thriving all across India. At the same time, the production and promotion of Ayurvedic herbal medicines has spectacularly increased, as well as scientific records of benefits. Today, Ayurvedic medicines are obtainable throughout the globe.

 

Gurukul system of Ayurveda

Long time back, in the days prior to its commencement, the records of Ayurvedic medicine was verbally transmitted via the Gurukul system until a written script came into being.
In this structure, the Guru gave a serious lecture where he asked the students to follow a life of chastity, truthfulness, and vegetarianism. The student was to strive with all his being to heal the sick. He was not to betray patients for his own advantage. He was required to wear modest outfits and stay away from alcohol or drugs. He was to be unruffled and self-controlled, calculated in speech at all times. He was to continuously develop his comprehension and scientific skills. At the patient's house, he was to be well mannered and unpretentious, directing all concentration to the patient's well being. He was not to reveal any knowledge about the patient and his family. If the patient was not curable, he was to keep this to himself if it was likely to hurt the patient or others.
The average length of the student's education appears to have been seven years. Before graduation, the student was to pass a test. But the physician was to keep on to learning through texts, direct observation (pratyaksha), and through deduction (anumāna). At the same time, the vaidyas was present at meetings where information was exchanged. The practitioners too gained awareness of extraordinary remedies from common people who were outside the community such as hills men, herdsmen, and forest-dwellers.

Tridosha System

There are many concepts of Ayurveda. One of the main, which can be called the central concept of Ayurvedic medicine, is the hypothesis that health exists when there is equilibrium between three primary physical humours or doshas called Vata, Pitta and Kapha.

Vata is the impulse principle necessary to mobilize the function of the nervous system
Pitta is the energy principle which uses bile to direct digestion and hence metabolism into the venous system.
Kapha is the body fluid principle, which relates to mucous, lubrication and the carrier of nutrients into the arterial system.
All Ayurvedic physicians consider that these olden ideas, based on the knowledge discovered by the Rishis (sages) and Munis, survive in agreement with physical actuality. These Ayurvedic ideas allow physicians to examine the homeostasis of the total system. People may be of a major dosha or constitution, but all doshas have the basic elements within them.


 
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